Ecology

frogecologynbMA Biology Standard 6:  Ecology

Central Concept:  Ecology is the interaction among organisms and between organisms and their environment.

6.1 Explain how birth, death, immigration, and emigration influence population size.

6.2 Analyze changes in population size and biodiversity (speciation and extinction) that result from the following: natural causes, changes in climate, human activity, and the introduction of invasive, non-native species.

6.3 Use a food web to identify and distinguish producers, consumers, and decomposers, and explain the transfer of energy through trophic levels. Describe how relationships among organisms (predation, parasitism, competition, commensalism, mutualism) add to the complexity of biological communities.

6.4 Explain how water, carbon, and nitrogen cycle between abiotic resources and organic matter in an ecosystem, and how oxygen cycles through photosynthesis and respiration.


frogecologynb

Ecology Keywords and Terms

Standard 6.1

Immigration

Emigration

Standard 6.2

Biodiversity

Speciation

Extinction

Invasive species

Non-native species

Deforestation

Standard 6.3

Food web

Food chain

Autotroph

Heterotroph

Trophic level

Energy pyramid

Biomass pyramid

Decomposters

Producers

Consumers

Transfer of energy

Predation

Parasitism

Competition

Commensalism

Mutualism

Niche

Competitive exclusion

Standard 6.4

Water cycle

  •   Evaporation
  •   Transpiration
  •   Condensation
  •   Precipation

Carbon cycle

  • CO2->carbohydrates by photosynthesis->heterotrophs   use as energy & releaseCO2 gas
  • Carbon from fossil fuels extracted, burned and   released back into the atmosphere

Nitrogen cycle

  •   Ammonification
  •   Nitrogen fixation
  •   Nitrogen fixing bacteria-symbiosis with plant roots

Oxygen cycle

  •   Photosynthesis releases O2
  •   Cell Respiration uses O2
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