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Chapter 9 Practice



Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
 

 1. 

Coho salmon in the Pacific Northwest were given endangered status in 1997 under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. This was a result of the following changes in the rivers that they inhabit:
a.
dams were built that inhibited migration.
b.
cooler temperatures in pools behind large dams created conditions for toxic algae.
c.
pooling of water behind dams caused a rise in water temperature unfavorable to salmon.
d.
fish ladders were developed.
e.
both a and c.
 

 2. 

Migratory behavior of salmon in the Pacific northwest was assisted by
a.
fish ladders.
b.
warmer temperatures.
c.
greater cutting of trees along the banks to promote warmer temperatures.
d.
cutting of new channels parallel to the rivers in which they can migrate.
e.
all of these answers are correct.
 

 3. 

As a result of an agreement reached in 2009, flow levels in the Klamath River will be
a.
decreased due to planting crops that require less water.
b.
decreased due to additional dams.
c.
increased due to improved irrigation technology and less water thirsty plants.
d.
decreased because the residents continue to fight for their individual needs regardless of the needs of the salmon.
e.
unchanged over time because fishermen, farmers, and power plant managers will never put the environment ahead of their personal needs.
 

 4. 

Freshwater accounts for percent of total water in the world.
a.
1
b.
3
c.
10
d.
20
e.
33
 

 5. 

Earth’s freshwater is found in several forms. Which of the following statements about forms of freshwater is correct?
a.
1/4  is below ground as permafrost.
b.
3/4  is groundwater.
c.
1/2  is above and ½ is below ground.
d.
3/4  is aboveground in ice and glaciers.
e.
1/2  is groundwater.
 

 6. 

In an aquifer,
a.
groundwater is found in spaces between sediments and rock layers.
b.
underground water is always confined.
c.
underground water is always unconfined
d.
water recharge is rapid.
e.
is generally found under a glacier.
 

 7. 

The following are characteristics of confined aquifers:
I. They are polluted more easily than unconfined aquifers.
II. They are recharged directly overhead from waters falling at the surface.
III. They are surrounded by layers of impermeable rock.
IV. They may contain water that is 10-20,000 years old .
a.
I and II only
b.
II and III only
c.
III only
d.
III and IV
e.
I, II, III, IV
 

 8. 

The water table is
a.
anywhere water is visible on the surface.
b.
where streams and lakes intersect.
c.
the uppermost level at which water fully saturates rock or soil.
d.
synonymous with groundwater.
e.
where water under pressure rises.
 

 9. 

Places where water from aquifers naturally percolates up to the ground surface are known as
a.
wells.
b.
springs.
c.
cones of depression.
d.
water tables.
e.
recharges.
 

 10. 

Unconfined aquifers
a.
are polluted more easily than confined aquifers.
b.
are recharged directly overhead from waters falling at the surface.
c.
may contain water that is 10-20,000 years old.
d.
can be drilled into to produce artesian wells.
e.
both a and b.
 

 11. 

In an artesian well
a.
water sinks deep underground as a result of pressure.
b.
water is infiltrated by sediment.
c.
there is no recharge source.
d.
water under pressure can rise to the surface without pumping.
e.
salt infiltrates fresh water.
 

 12. 

Use of water from the Ogallala aquifer in the Great Plains region of the United States is not sustainable because
a.
it is being polluted at a rapid rate by oil leaking.
b.
It originated during the time when dinosaurs existed.
c.
it is recharged at a rate that is slower than it is used.
d.
There is intense competition for water for household, industrial, and agricultural use.
e.
both c and d.
 

 13. 

A cone of depression may develop
a.
where artesian wells are common.
b.
if groundwater is deep.
c.
where groundwater is abundant.
d.
in areas adjacent to a deep well from which a great deal of water is rapidly pumped.
e.
only in unconfined aquifers.
 

 14. 

Saltwater intrusion into freshwater aquifers may be a problem in
a.
coastal areas.
b.
mountainous areas.
c.
the midwestern United States.
d.
forested areas.
e.
areas with many freshwater lakes.
 

 15. 

The world’s three largest rivers are the
a.
Yangtze, Congo, and Indus.
b.
Yangtze, Amazon, and Tigris.
c.
Amazon, Yangtze, and Congo.
d.
Amazon, Nile, and Hudson.
e.
Euphrates, Amazon, and Nile.
 

 16. 

Traditionally, floodplains were very important for development of human habitation because
a.
rivers were contained in their banks making housing easy to build.
b.
rivers overflowed their banks, depositing nutrient rich sediments for agriculture.
c.
weather patterns were more predictable near rivers.
d.
large grazing animals inhabited those areas.
e.
both b and d.
 

 17. 

Select the large water body that is correctly paired with its means of origin.
a.
Lake Baikal-glacial carving.
b.
Caspian Sea-tectonic uplift
c.
Lake Victoria-glacial carving.
d.
Great Lakes-volcanic eruption.
e.
All of these answers are correct.
 

 18. 

Oligotrophic lakes
a.
are synonymous with eutrophic lakes.
b.
contain many fish because they are free of pollutants.
c.
are polluted by nitrogen and phosphorous.
d.
have low productivity due to low amounts of nutrients.
e.
are the result of flooding.
 

 19. 

Eutrophic lakes
a.
have very low productivity as a result of acid rain.
b.
have very high productivity as a result of high levels of nutrients.
c.
have low nutrient levels.
d.
are formed by glaciers.
e.
usually have absolutely no fish.
 
 
Figure 9-1
nar001-1.jpg
 

 20. 

Use Figure 9-1. According to the figure above, the lake with the largest water volume is
a.
Lake Victoria.
b.
Lake Superior.
c.
Lake Tanganyika.
d.
Lake Baikal.
e.
Lake Huron.
 

 21. 

Use Figure 9-1. According to the figure above, which lake has a maximum depth of about 1,500 meters?
a.
Lake Superior.
b.
the Caspian Sea.
c.
Lake Tanganyika.
d.
Lake Baikal.
e.
Lake Victoria.
 

 22. 

Levees do which of the following?
I. prevent flooding
II. cause flooding downstream
III. prevent deposition of sediment on floodplains
a.
I only.
b.
II only.
c.
III only.
d.
II and III.
e.
I, II, and III.
 

 23. 

The reason that Hurricane Katrina was so devastating to the city of New Orleans, LA, is that
a.
water overtopped the levees.
b.
floodplains were heavily developed.
c.
the dikes broke.
d.
levees were not built on time.
e.
both a and b.
 

 24. 

Dikes in the Netherlands
a.
are used in association with pumps to remove sea water.
b.
are necessary because more than 1/4 of the land is below sea level.
c.
may be needed in the very near future, but are not in place yet.
d.
originally used pumps powered by windmills.
e.
a, b and d are all correct.
 

 25. 

Dams are used for which of the following?
I. Create reservoirs for drinking water.
II. Power turbines that generate electricity.
III. Better conditions for salmon migration.
a.
I only.
b.
II only.
c.
I and II.
d.
I and III.
e.
I, II, and III.
 

 26. 

Hydroelectric dams represent _____ percent of all dams in the United States.
a.
3
b.
25
c.
50
d.
75
e.
98
 

 27. 

The effect(s) of dams include
a.
impediment to fish migration.
b.
displacement of people.
c.
reduction of fossil fuel use.
d.
reduction of seasonal flooding.
e.
all of these answers are correct.
 

 28. 

Fish ladders are constructed to assist
a.
migrating bears in obtaining fish.
b.
fish traveling back to their traditional breeding grounds.
c.
whale migration.
d.
construction workers building dams.
e.
displaced humans to return to their homes.
 

 29. 

The effects of seasonal flood prevention by dams are
a.
always helpful because they protect people from floods.
b.
always detrimental to animal migration.
c.
sometimes detrimental because natural pools and shorelines are altered.
d.
sometimes changed through intentional release of flood waters.
e.
both c and d.
 

 30. 

The purpose of aqueducts is
a.
to protect river channels.
b.
to store water.
c.
to move water from one place to another.
d.
to create wells.
e.
obsolete because they were created by the Romans.
 

 31. 

Aqueducts present problems in the areas in which they are located. This may be due to the following:
I. diversion from the natural river channel flow.
II. loss of water due to evaporation.
III. political problems due to location of water bodies.
a.
I only.
b.
II only.
c.
III only.
d.
I and II.
e.
I, II, and III.
 

 32. 

Examples of political international problems created by water diversion projects exist between
a.
India and Somalia.
b.
India and Bangladesh.
c.
Colorado and New Mexico.
d.
New York and New Jersey.
e.
China and Turkey.
 

 33. 

When water is diverted from rivers, environmental damage may result in the following way:
a.
in an estuary fed by the river, salinity increases as sea water is able to encroach.
b.
in an estuary fed by the river, salinity decreases as sea water is able to encroach.
c.
the quantity of lake waters fed by the river may decrease significantly.
d.
the salinity of lake waters fed by the river may decrease.
e.
a and c.
 

 34. 

The following scenario describes huge changes in the Aral Sea in Central Asia:
a.
The former Soviet Union diverted rivers, increasing the water levels and decreasing salinity in the Aral Sea.
b.
China built a dam, which decreased water levels downstream.
c.
Water was diverted for irrigation, decreasing the water levels and increasing salinity in the Aral Sea.
d.
Dust storms were created from sediment on the dried seafloor.
e.
both c and d.
 

 35. 

Currently, some water-poor countries are obtaining fresh water through
a.
transporting huge amounts of glacial water.
b.
building levees.
c.
resalination.
d.
desalination.
e.
increasing irrigation.
 

 36. 

The problem with the distillation method of desalination is that
a.
the technology is not readily available.
b.
in the areas where it is needed, there is not enough salt water.
c.
it is energy intensive.
d.
it produces brine, unlike the reverse osmosis process.
e.
None of the above.
 

 37. 

Reverse osmosis is preferable to distillation as a method of desalination because
a.
it produces less salty brine which is damaging to wildlife.
b.
the salt it produces can be deposited safely on land.
c.
the salt is safely returned to the ocean.
d.
the equipment is more efficient and often less costly.
e.
both b and d.
 

 38. 

Half of the amount of desalinated water is produced in ____.
a.
the Middle East.
b.
Asia.
c.
South America.
d.
Central America.
e.
Singapore.
 

 39. 

Freshwater around the world is unevenly distributed. The Middle Eastern and North African countries have _____ percent of the world’s population and _____ percent of the world’s drinking water.
a.
5; 1
b.
1; 5
c.
50; 5
d.
20; 2
e.
15; 5
 

 40. 

The United Nations estimates that _____ people live in regions that have a scarcity of water.
a.
3 billion
b.
1.2 billion
c.
0.5 billion
d.
150 million
e.
75 million
 

 41. 

Of the world’s freshwater, roughly _____ percent is used for agriculture, _____ percent is used for industry, and _____ percent is for household use.
a.
10; 20; 70
b.
70; 20; 10
c.
70; 10; 20
d.
40; 20; 40
e.
33; 33; 31
 

 42. 

Over the last 50 years, the amount of water used for irrigation throughout the world has
a.
tripled because of the increase in human population.
b.
doubled because of the increase in human population.
c.
been cut in half as a result of water conservation technologies.
d.
been decreased slightly as a result of water conservation technologies.
e.
decreased about 1% as a result of water conservation technologies.
 

 43. 

More than half the irrigated land in the world is located in
a.
China, the United States, India and Pakistan.
b.
China, Norway, India and Pakistan.
c.
China, the United States, Russia and Pakistan.
d.
Japan, the United States, India and Mongolia.
e.
China, South Korea, India and Pakistan.
 
 
Figure 9-2

nar002-1.jpg
 

 44. 

Use Figure 9-2. According to the figure above, water availability per capita throughout North Africa is approximately
a.
15,000-70,000 m3 per capita per year.
b.
6,000-15,000 m3 per capita per year.
c.
1,700-2,500 m3 per capita per year.
d.
1,000-1,700 m3 per capita per year.
e.
0-1,000 m3 per capita per year.
 
 
Figure 9-3

nar003-1.jpg
 

 45. 

Use Figure 9-3. According to the figure above, the greatest per capita water use in the world is seen in
a.
Canada
b.
United States
c.
South Africa
d.
Kenya
e.
China
 

 46. 

Use Figure 9-3. According to the figure above, the total per capita water use in India is closest to _____ liters.
a.
1,000
b.
2,000
c.
3,000
d.
4,000
e.
5,000
 

 47. 

The amount of water required for raising one metric ton of grain is
a.
100 liters.
b.
1,000 liters.
c.
100,000 liters.
d.
1 million liters.
e.
10 million liters.
 

 48. 

The amount of water required for raising one metric ton of beef is
a.
110 liters.
b.
1,100 liters.
c.
11,000 liters.
d.
110,000 liters.
e.
11 million liters.
 

 49. 

Furrow irrigation
a.
involves flooding an entire field.
b.
involves dripping water near the roots of a plant.
c.
requires stripping old crops from a field.
d.
involves digging trenches and filling them with water.
e.
Both c and d.
 

 50. 

The oldest and least expensive type of irrigation is
a.
spray irrigation.
b.
flood irrigation.
c.
furrow irrigation.
d.
drip irrigation.
e.
also the least water intensive type of irrigation.
 

 51. 

Spray irrigation
a.
uses technology that looks like giant sprinklers.
b.
is 75-95% efficient.
c.
is valuable because it does not use much energy.
d.
is the least water intensive type of irrigation.
e.
both a and b.
 

 52. 

Drip irrigation
a.
is valuable in areas where underground hoses do not have to be moved for annual plowing.
b.
involves dripping water near the roots of a plant.
c.
is 95% water efficient.
d.
reduces weed growth.
e.
all of these answers are correct.
 

 53. 

Hydroponic agriculture
I. uses soil.
II. uses a nutrient rich solution.
III. uses little or no pesticides.
a.
I only.
b.
II only.
c.
I and II.
d.
II and III.
e.
I, II, and III.
 

 54. 

Hydroponic vegetables
a.
require a great deal of soil.
b.
are not grown at times that the specific vegetable is out of season.
c.
require a great deal of water.
d.
are grown in conditions that are much more water efficient than traditional types of irrigation.
e.
Both a and d.
 

 55. 

Industrial processes that use a great amount of water
a.
include processing of metals.
b.
may use the water for cooling and condensing steam.
c.
may harm fish even if the water is returned to its source.
d.
include hydroelectric plants.
e.
all of these answers are correct.
 
 
Figure 9-4

nar004-1.jpg
 

 56. 

Use Figure 9-4. According to the figure above, household per capita use of water per day is greatest in
a.
Australia
b.
The United States
c.
Iraq
d.
India
e.
China
 

 57. 

Overall, the greatest percentage of household water use in the United States is for
a.
flushing toilets.
b.
watering lawns.
c.
drinking.
d.
outdoor vegetable gardens.
e.
laundry.
 

 58. 

Nearly _____ percent of the world’s population lacks access to safe drinking water.
a.
5
b.
10
c.
15
d.
20
e.
25
 

 59. 

Allowing market forces to determine the price of water should result in
a.
a decrease in the price of water.
b.
an increase in the availability of water.
c.
an increased recognition of water used.
d.
a decrease in water conservation measures.
e.
all of the above.
 

 60. 

You are selecting a new dishwasher. You do about 150 loads per year. The less efficient model uses 9 gallons per load. The more efficient model uses 6 gallons per load. How many gallons of water will be saved over the course of one year?
a.
45
b.
450
c.
4500
d.
45,000
e.
50
 

 61. 

You are selecting a new dishwasher. You do about 150 loads per year. The less efficient model uses 9 gallons per load. The more efficient model uses 6 gallons per load. How much money will be saved on water if you select the more efficient model and the price of water is $0.75 per 1000 gallons?
a.
$0.34
b.
$3.30
c.
$33
d.
$330
e.
$3000
 

 62. 

In the United States, toilets manufactured before 1994 typically required _____ L per flush. Federal standards altered this to _____ L per flush in January 1994.
a.
50; 5
b.
27; 6
c.
25; 20
d.
15; 10
e.
10; 5
 

 63. 

An old showerhead typically used 150 L of water for a 10-minute shower. Reduced-flow showerheads that meet federal standards changed this water usage to _____ L for the same 10 minute shower.
a.
145
b.
130
c.
120
d.
95
e.
50
 

 64. 

A method that has been implemented to reduce water use in dry climates such as Nevada is to
a.
prohibit people from planting grass on their lawns.
b.
pay people to plant native vegetation instead of grass on their lawns.
c.
prohibit use of washing machines during the day when energy use is at a peak.
d.
prohibit garden stores from selling vegetation that doesn’t naturally grow in dry climates.
e.
require watering lawns at night to reduce water loss from evaporation.
 

 65. 

If a lawn requires about 50 L per square meter per day, how much water is needed in one year to water 20 square meters of this lawn, assuming the rate does not change throughout the year?
a.
3650
b.
36,500
c.
365,000
d.
3,650,000
e.
none of the above.
 

 66. 

Which of the following statements about water use in the United States is true?
a.
Water use continues to rise sharply due to increasing population.
b.
Water use is decreasing due to falling population.
c.
Water use has been cut in half due to water-efficient technologies.
d.
Water use has leveled off due to water-efficient technologies.
e.
Water use has doubled over the past ten years due to an increase in washing machines.
 

 67. 

Gray water is suitable for
a.
drinking.
b.
washing clothing.
c.
washing cars.
d.
watering plants.
e.
both c and d.
 

 68. 

Gray water may come from
a.
Baths, showers, sinks, and washing machines.
b.
dishwashers.
c.
washing cars.
d.
flushing toilets.
e.
All of these are correct.
 

 69. 

Restrictions on the use of gray water in California
a.
were made stronger due to fears about wastewater.
b.
were reduced in 2009 due to drought.
c.
require that gray water is used for all lawn watering.
d.
prohibit gray water use for washing cars.
e.
have not yet been considered.
 

 70. 

Gray water use in Sydney, Australia, saves up to _____ L per household annually.
a.
50,000
b.
5,000
c.
500
d.
50
e.
5
 



 
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